“It’s natural to miss some of the Covid deaths,” stated Dr. Bhramar Mukherjee, a professor of biostatistics on the University of Michigan School of Public Health who has been working with the W.H.O. to assessment the info. But, she added, “Nobody’s been this resistant.”

The Ministry of Health in New Delhi didn’t reply to requests for remark. W.H.O. officers stated that India’s 2020 loss of life figures had been launched too late to be integrated into their calculations however that they might “carefully review” the info.

Nations that report Covid deaths extra precisely have additionally been on the heart of disputes over the reliability of extra loss of life estimates. In Germany, for instance, the W.H.O. specialists estimated that 195,000 extra folks than regular had died through the pandemic, a considerably increased toll than the 112,000 Covid deaths recorded there.

But Giacomo De Nicola, a statistician at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, who has studied extra deaths in Germany, stated that the nation’s quickly ageing inhabitants meant that the W.H.O. evaluation might need underestimated the quantity of people that would have been anticipated to die in a traditional 12 months. That, in flip, may have produced overestimates of extra deaths.

He stated that the W.H.O.-assembled specialists had accounted for tendencies in mortality, however indirectly for adjustments within the age construction of the inhabitants. While Germany skilled extra deaths, he stated, the W.H.O. estimate for the nation “seems very high.”

Overall, the W.H.O. calculations had been extra conservative than separate analyses launched earlier by The Economist and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.

Some specialists stated that the W.H.O. evaluation benefited from relying extra closely than different estimates on precise knowledge, even the place it was incomplete, versus statistical modeling.

Oscar Lopez, Karan Deep Singh, Sofía Villamil, Christopher F. Schuetze, Ivan Nechepurenko, Richard C. Paddock, Muktita Suhartono, Mitra Taj, Julie Turkewitz, Merna Thomas and Salman Masood contributed reporting.